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Constraints and pressures

Englishmen never will be slaves: they are free to do whatever the Government and public opinion allow them to do. George Bernard Shaw

Constraints and pressures may limit an organization's freedom of action, but they can be lived with - they are not usually sinister and are normally just a nuisance. They can originate from external or internal sources.

External origin: 
Every organization is subject to many laws, regulations, standards, codes of practice and agreements. These cover political, environmental, health & safety, economic, legal, personnel and similar issues. In Europe, the 48-hour week and minimum wage are just two examples.  Single-issue groups also exert pressure and range from Amnesty International and Greenpeace to small organizations, which may be trying to prevent houses being built on the village green.

Internal origin: 
Internal constraints arise as a natural consequence of running an organization, or providing a measure of control:

Lack of resources - funds, equipment, buildings, material, space, skills, people, etc.
Internal policies and rules
- which must be conformed to - 24 hour cover to be maintained, no contract staff to be used, at least one person to be qualified in first aid, etc.
Ethically and socially acceptable -
any discounts to be given equally to all, manager's relatives not to be employed, no secret deals with competitors, etc.

Organizations or groups that have the authority to make the organization conform and include: police, health and safety inspectorate, fire service, tax authorities, equal opportunities, racial equality, trading standards, planning departments, etc.

Pressure groups: 
Industry groups - Trades unions and staff associations, chambers of commerce, user associations, supplier or buyer cartels. Single-issue groups - For or against smoking, League against cruel sports.  The media - Radio, television and the press campaigning on particular 'hot issues'. >>>