never will be slaves: they are free to do whatever the Government and public
opinion allow them to do. George Bernard Shaw
Constraints and pressures may limit an organization's
freedom of action, but they can be lived with - they are not usually sinister
and are normally just a nuisance. They
can originate from external or internal sources.
External origin: Every
organization is subject to many laws, regulations, standards, codes of practice
and agreements. These
cover political, environmental, health & safety, economic, legal, personnel
and similar issues. In Europe, the 48-hour week and minimum wage
are just two examples. Single-issue
groups also exert pressure and range from Amnesty International and Greenpeace
to small organizations, which may be trying to prevent houses being built on
the village green.
Internal origin: Internal
constraints arise as a natural consequence of running an organization, or
providing a measure of control:
Lack of resources - funds,
equipment, buildings, material, space, skills, people, etc.
Internal policies and rules -
which must be conformed to - 24 hour cover to be maintained, no contract
staff to be used, at least one person to be qualified in first aid, etc.
Ethically and socially
acceptable - any discounts
to be given equally to all, manager's relatives not to be employed, no secret
deals with competitors, etc.
or groups that have the authority to make the organization conform and include:
police, health and safety inspectorate, fire service, tax authorities, equal
opportunities, racial equality, trading standards, planning
groups: Industry groups - Trades
unions and staff associations, chambers of commerce, user associations, supplier or buyer
cartels. Single-issue groups - For or against smoking, League against cruel sports.
The media - Radio,
television and the press campaigning on particular 'hot issues'. >>>