genius resides in the capacity for evaluation of uncertain, hazardous, conflicting information. Sir
can be presented in a number of forms - text, numbers, graphics, video or sound
and can be stored in filing cabinets, computers and a person’s memory. While
the collection and storage of information is important, knowing that the
information exists, understanding it and using it to positively contribute to
the operation of the organization is crucial.
categorize information and its use in four ways, which can be used and exploited by
appropriate information technology:
for example, on products,
customers, services, people, invoices, etc. (file storage systems).
the relationship between
different types of data, for example, products ordered by a customer, students
attending a class, or the topography and demography of a city (database and objectbase technology).
extracting meaning from information, for example, profiling the types of
people who are likely to buy the latest gadget, evade paying taxes,
default on agreements, or make excessive insurance claims (parallel
systems and search engines).
- using knowledge in
conjunction with experience for making decisions or forming judgments, for
example, complex diagnostic systems, or suggesting future courses of action
based on information about the future and the results of previous courses of
action (expert systems and neural networks).
is collected, stored, retrieved, updated and made secure and these functions may
involve many different people and departments. To maintain control, individuals
or groups should be nominated to be responsible for and ‘own’ these various
activities. Consideration should also be given to two separate
and independent issues of security:
Integrity - protection from
corruption, damage, loss and denial of access to authorized users. >>>