statesman is a politician who places himself at the
service of the nation. A politician is a statesman who places the nation
at his service. Georges
fall into two broad categories - those who start up organizations or
departments and the vast majority who administer the status quo. Each
type requires different personal qualities.
The approach: Do
managers regard their subordinates and themselves as working together for the
organization or regard their subordinates as working for them personally? Do
they use words like 'us', 'we', 'our' or words like 'me', 'my', 'I', 'you',
‘they’? The employees should also get the feeling that the managers
are working for the good of the whole organization, not for just one or two
participants, such as the owners or themselves. In dealing with failure, do
managers share responsibility, try to discover reasons why and apply corrective
action or do they concentrate on apportioning blame? Is a feeling of confidence promoted or is the environment one
of fear? What is the attitude to
whistle-blowers? Are promises made
which are forgotten?
are three extremes of management style with regard to decision-making, although,
in real life, particular individuals will often have ingredients of all three.
Democratic - the
manager allows subordinates to discuss issues and reach decisions although
he will guide and advise.
Autocratic - the
manager allows subordinates little involvement and discussion before a decision
is taken, e.g. the uniformed services. In businesses, this is often disastrous,
since other opinions are ignored and consequently, mistakes made.
- the manager does not
interfere with subordinates - and this can lead to situations where 'things just
happen'. This can work, but often leads to anarchy.
deal with their subordinates in different styles. They include
‘management by walking about’ - first publicized by Field
Marshal Montgomery, ‘management
by wanting to be liked by everyone’, ‘management by bullying’, ‘management by shouting’ and ‘management by dumping problems on others’!